Getting into graduate school

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Thinking of Moving From the U.S. to Canada for Graduate School? This is What You Need to Know.

Posted on February 14, 2017.  Canada has always been a good place to pursue a university education. Not only a baccalaureate, but also for graduate studies at the master’s or doctoral level. Now, more than ever, students across the U.S. are thinking about it, talking about it, and there will no doubt be a surge in the number actually doing it over the next few years.

Canada is home to around 100 universities, and while some are primarily undergraduate universities that offer only a few graduate programs, there are several dozen more comprehensive universities that offer a wide range of doctoral and professional degree programs.

If you are an American student who is trying to decide whether going to grad school in Canada is a good idea, there are some key things you need to know. Here are some of them:

1. You will not have to make compromises in the quality of your graduate education by choosing a Canadian university over one in the U.S. There are no significant differences between Canadian and American universities in the range of graduate programs available, and no differences in quality of education and training. This is so important to understand that I will repeat it: There are no significant differences between the U.S. and Canada in terms of the quality of graduate training available. This is true for all STEM disciplines and social sciences.

2. Graduate schools in Canada are also equivalent to American schools in terms of preparing people for gainful employment and successful careers – including opportunities in Canada, back in the U.S., or in countries abroad. This reality arises from the previous point – the quality standards of training at the master’s or doctoral levels are the same in the U.S. and Canada. Program accreditation is governed by different organizations in the two countries, but they apply similar criteria.

3. Graduate schools in Canada and the U.S. evaluate applicants to their programs the same way, using the same criteria, and with similar standards. This means that the keys to applying successfully to the right programs are also the same. Aside from having to arrange for a student visa to study in Canada, the rest of the application process is the same as for universities in the U.S.

4. Applicants to programs in either Canada or the U.S. must do the same things to prepare, and to apply successfully. Luckily, if you are reading this, you have arrived at the best place to get comprehensive, insightful, and actionable advice on how to manage all aspects of your preparation for and application to graduate school. This is what I aim to provide through this blog, and I encourage you to browse the archives of my previous posts. You will find numerous articles on topics related to letters of recommendation, the personal statement, myths and misconceptions about the role of grades and GPA, writing cover letters, choosing schools and programs, communicating with potential graduate supervisors, and more.

5. Tuition fees are generally lower in Canada than in the U.S., but as a foreign student, an American studying in Canada will have probably have to pay international tuition fees. Overall, this may bring the direct costs in U.S. dollar terms into line with what those costs would be for most in-state students at universities of similar size in the U.S. International fee remissions are available to a limited number of foreign applicants to most Canadian universities, but there is a lot of variation across schools and programs in this respect. Talk to prospective supervisors or program directors about this — don’t just rely on what you can find on the university websites.

6. You don’t need to speak French! Not even in primarily French-speaking Quebec. While there are a handful of French-language universities in the province of Quebec, there are also large English-language universities, including McGill and Concordia, and the much smaller Bishops University. Outside of Quebec, the remaining nine Canadian provinces host major universities that are all English.

7. To most Americans, Canada is only a foreign country in the technical sense. A long border separates us geographically, and we have different governments, but living in a Canadian city is just like living in a city in the U.S. – but with significantly less crime, fewer deeply impoverished and homeless people, and overall better treatment of minority groups and vulnerable members of society.

8. You will be feel welcome in Canada, no matter your country of birth or citizenship, your religion, or your political views. If one reason you’re thinking of grad school in Canada is because you would like to get some distance from the new political landscape and brewing turmoil in United States, your reasoning is sound. Canada is safe, Canada is free, and Canada is stable. Canada is also rich in cultural and geographical diversity. These qualities are part of our national identity, and they are ever present on our university campuses.

How to find the right Canadian graduate programs

Let’s suppose you’re serious about moving to Canada for graduate school. Now that you know it wouldn’t require any compromises in the quality of education and training, you can move directly to the serious business of figuring out which schools and programs to apply to. What’s the best approach?

It’s easy to find out what you need to know about any graduate or professional programs, its faculty members and their research interests, the city in which you would live. But there are many Canadian cities with one or more universities to choose from. All the choices can be a bit overwhelming.

The location of the university may be an important factor and one that can be used to help you narrow down your search. You need to be willing to live in a particular city or town for the next several years. It’s easy enough to learn all there is to know about a place through diligent Internet research. As you learn about different places, remove from your list of potential programs any that are in undesirable locations.

Being in a comfortable and supportive environment is essential for success in graduate school. Interpersonal compatibility with your graduate supervisor is also important. Few things are more miserable than working with someone you dislike, so you want to have some idea of whether you will get along with your potential supervisor, and you want to figure this out before you apply to any program. This is one reason you should directly contact potential supervisors at least a few weeks before the application deadline. There are other important reasons to have this pre-application communication with potential supervisors, but those are discussed elsewhere in this blog.

Finding the right program and a compatible graduate supervisor can be a daunting task, but if you do your research, and contact potential supervisors before you apply, you can avoid wasting a lot of time and money on unsuccessful applications, or on successful applications to the wrong places.

Sorry… can I help?

As you may have guessed by now, I am a Canadian. I am familiar with many of our universities, and I have lived in a few different cities and in different regions of the country. I can answer any question about what to expect if you come to Canada for graduate studies.

Plus, regardless of whether you’re applying to schools in Canada or the U.S., I have the insider’s advice that will help you get in. As a psychology professor for the past 23 years, I have supervised numerous graduate students, served on graduate-admissions and scholarship-ranking committees, and advised countless undergraduate students on educational and career planning. Aside from my research expertise in behavioral neuroscience, my main specialization is helping students understand what they need to know — and what they need to do — in order to prepare for graduate school, to put together a winning application to the right programs, and to succeed in grad school once there. I wrote a book on the topic, which has been published in two editions (1997 and 2012), and I have given guest lectures on the topic at several universities across Canada. For individuals, I offer 30 – 60 minute personalized consultation sessions by phone or Skype. Give me a chance to help, and you won’t be disappointed. For more information on this service, visit my Frequently Asked Questions.

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Professors May Know You Better Than You Think (and That Might Not Be a Good Thing)

Posted on February 3rd 2017

When we interact with other people, we form attitudes and opinions about them based on what they say and do. Our attitudes and opinions can be challenged if we later observe a person behaving toward others in a manner that is inconsistent with our initial impressions of their character and comportment. If our first impressions of someone are negative, it can require a lot of positive observations to reverse our negative opinions. First they have to climb out of the hole they are in.

You Are Being Watched

Most students underestimate how much of their behavior is noticed by certain professors they encounter. It is important to realize that certain comments or behaviors that are innocuous to some people may still evoke disdain in others who have different attitudes about those things. For example, some students misjudge how their appearance or outward behavioral tendencies affect the attitudes that certain professors have about them. Students who stand out by dressing garishly or sporting showy make-up or hair-styles may find it harder to earn respect based on any truly relevant strengths they possess than do the conformists. This is not fair or rational, but it reflects an aspect of human nature. When we form an impression of someone from a few sketchy interactions, that person’s most salient traits or characteristics can obscure other traits that are actually more pertinent. The message here is that students who have a style or character that is a bit outrageous should consider toning it down when they are at school.

But, how much does is actually matter what your professors think of you on a personal level? It might matter quite a lot. Students who might someday need letters of recommendation from professors should understand that their behavior today, whether positive or negative, may still be reflected in the attitude that a professor has about them one or two years from now. Naturally, most professors will come to like or dislike some students more than others. Nobody is going to write a good letter of recommendation for someone they dislike, so students should be thinking about how their behavior could affect their chances of having support from professors later on.

Some of the student behaviors that professors dislike are obvious: The worst include talking with classmates or rolling eyes or smirking while the professor is speaking, or frequently arriving late for class or leaving early without any apparent good reason. One of the most frequent displays of disrespect in the classroom these days is to be looking at your smartphone, tablet, or laptop computer while the professor is talking. Students who think they will not be noticed or remembered because there are several other students doing the same thing are wrong about that. Of course, it depends on the professor, too. The important point is that some are very observant, and they are watching you, even if they aren’t doing so purposefully.

Some students fail to realize that they are insulting a professor when they complain about the way an exam, paper, or project was graded. Students perceived as arrogant or pretentious, or as loud, childish, silly or immature, will find it difficult to reverse those perceptions, even if they begin to behave more appropriately.

Be Mindful of How You Come Across

Some students engage in certain behaviors that they think will make a good impression on their professors, but with the opposite result. For instance, some professors encourage students to ask questions and voice their opinions in lectures, but dislike it when a student does too much of this and ends up monopolizing class discussions. Most professors don’t mind if a student occasionally drops by the office to talk about academic matters, but some students do this far too frequently, or even worse, they take up their professors’ time with their personal problems.

Among the behaviors commonly disliked are some that students would not expect professors to even notice or care about. One example is when students put in little effort and, as a result, do poorly on a midterm exam and later expect extra help outside of class to help them prepare for the final exam. Some professors may feel negatively about students who seem to be always anxious about minor things, or always stern-faced and much too serious, or chronically depressed. Everyone appreciates a compliment, but some students frequently compliment their professors in a manner that is perceived as manipulative. Teaching assistants, most of whom are graduate students, also observe undergraduate student behavior and they may pass on their own stories to their professors.

Some professors have more disdain for certain negative behaviors than other professors do, but naturally, all have some limit to what they can tolerate before they begin to dislike a student. Most professors are reasonable and will overlook an irritating behavior if the student otherwise shows very good promise. Most realize that students occasionally encounter personal problems or circumstances that legitimately take precedence over their studies. Even the most dedicated students may understandably become preoccupied for several days following a serious fight with a spouse, or the death of someone close to them, or some other tragic circumstance. Although most professors are sympathetic enough to occasionally grant an extension on an assignment, or to reschedule an exam for a student with personal problems, repeated requests for this kind of special consideration may indicate that the student is unable to cope with adult life and responsibilities. The same student is not likely to be able to cope with the demands of graduate school.

Students sometimes make the mistake of disparaging others when explaining the consequences of their own previous mistakes or shortcomings. Never, ever, blame a bad grade you received on the professor! Over-exuberance can also make a negative impression, although the people who display this tendency may not realize the extent to which it weighs negatively on how they come across to some people. People who behave effusively may be perceived as insincere, or even manipulative. No one will be convinced that you belong in graduate school because you say that you’re “really, really, really passionate” about the field of study. The point is not to avoid being enthusiastic, because enthusiasm and motivation are essential. Most people like others who have a cheerful demeanor. Just be careful not to overdo it, or else others may assume that you are insincere. Students who are too nonchalant or casual may come across as being not sufficiently interested or motivated.

Students who will later need positive letters of recommendation must do more than avoid behaviors that professors dislike. They should also give their professors some reason to have good opinions about them. It is not enough to “blend into the woodwork,” as this will not give the professor anything positive to say in a letter.

So, what are examples of admired student behavior that contribute to professors’ attitudes of students they like? As with disliked behaviors or characteristics, some of the admired ones are obvious: students who seldom or never miss a class, are attentive and ask insightful questions, and who occasionally participate in class discussions. I personally like to see students turn their attention directly to me and immediately close their phones, tablets, or laptops as soon as I begin a lecture. These behaviors give the impression that the student is interested in the course, and that he or she respects me and is mindful of why we are there in the first place.

Among the student behaviors that professors like are some that students would not expect professors to even notice or care about. For instance, professors like to see students help each other. Sharing your notes with a student who missed a class might save the professor from having to spend extra time going over the material with that student. Some professors like it when students smile and say “hello” when they pass by outside of class, and most prefer when a student is willing to make eye contact rather than blatantly trying to avoid it. Some professors respect students who have the courage to disagree with them in class from time-to-time, as long as it is done in a respectful manner.

For the most part, the relations that exist between a student’s behavior and a professor’s attitudes about the student are nothing more than common sense. The most important point to be taken from all of this is that your behavior is on display much of the time, and professors who come into contact with you on a regular basis are likely to use their observations of your behaviors to develop opinions about your character. Those opinions will be reflected in any letter of recommendation they might eventually write for you.

How to Dig a Hole and Jump In

Context matters. Something a professor just happens to notice you do or hears you say in the hallway one day might leave no significant impression. It might not enter the observer’s stream of consciousness for more than a moment, and it might be forgotten just as quickly. But in a different context, the same observation might have much greater impact and lasting consequences.

Many students appreciate that it is essential to get some relevant experience before applying to graduate school. One of the most common ways of accomplishing this is to volunteer to help professors with their research. This is the best way to set up the most relevant and effective letters of recommendation that will be helpful down the road when applying to graduate school, or to a professional degree program, or for a postgraduate scholarship, or for a job. Some students fail to realize that one of the most important benefits that can come from volunteering as a research assistant is that it puts them in situations that allow the supervising professor to see how they work, how they interact with others, their independence, motivation, communication skills, maturity, emotional stability, and the list goes on. These are the kinds of things professors tend to write about in a letter of recommendation. In fact, most graduate programs explicitly request that individuals providing recommendation letters evaluate the applicant on at least some of these dimensions.

Some students make the mistake of seeking out opportunities as volunteer research assistants without knowing all the reasons why it is important to do so, especially if they plan to apply to graduate school, someday. Many students mistakenly believe it’s all about getting the relevant experience, and they don’t consider how the impression they leave on the supervising professor can come back to either help or harm them several months or a couple of years down the road. There are ways to make the most of a volunteer research position, and there are ways to inadvertently make it a huge waste of your time and effort. This general topic is discussed in a previous post, “How to Make the Least of a Volunteer Research Position“. Anyone planning to volunteer as a research assistant with a professor should read that article. It might help avoid disadvantages thar are difficult to overcome.

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How Joining a Students Association Can Help You Get the Most Out of Your Bachelor’s Degree (Part 2)

My last post appraised some of the benefits that come from being in a students association. It included the perspective of someone who has actually been there, done that — Samantha Briand has been president of her undergraduate psychology students association for the past two years. She shared with us some reasons why she was willing to devote hundreds of hours to volunteer for the benefit of complete strangers, and she described a few benefits that have come out of her experience, including pride in knowing that her personal sacrifices made a positive contribution to the student experience for so many people. She ended with a challenge to others to get involved with their students association, because the gains in terms of personal growth and satisfaction that come from the experience justify the costs in terms of time and effort.

I believe her. I believe most people would feel positively about the experience. It’s one of those things you may find it hard to imagine doing, which is why most people never do. But once you take that first step and things start rolling, you are so glad you took a chance and stepped outside your comfort zone.

Still, I know that very few people who read this, or who read Samantha’s message in my previous post, will consider for more than a few moments getting involved with their students association. Only a handful of the 5000-6000 people who will view this post over the next week or so, will ever be involved in their students association. That handful will reap the benefits Samantha mentioned, and the rest of them will miss out.

It Gets Better Yet for the Handful

Some of those people who are actively involved in their students association will reap benefits that go far beyond those we already discussed. Possibly very far, in some cases.

We all know that when it comes to applying to graduate school, or to professional school, or for a job within the workforce, the fate of an application will depend to a great extent on the quality and impact of the letters of recommendation. As I have discussed at length in previous posts, in order to have really effective letters of recommendation when the need arises, students must put themselves in situations that allow the right people to discover their relevant talents and important character attributes. One of the most effective ways to accomplish this is to volunteer to help professors with their research (which, by the way, is only effective if it’s done properly). But, there are other ways to put your abilities and character on display, too.

Any context that allows you stand apart from the crowd of students in such a way that makes your activities visible and your strengths apparent to professors can provide the basis for an effective letter of recommendation. Joining your students association provides a context in which you can show who you are and what you have to offer a prospective employer or graduate supervisor, as long as you and your group are doing the right kinds of things; such as, organizing seminars or workshops on career paths, or on study skills, or preparing for graduate school, or applying to graduate school, or any other serious and worthwhile topic.

The most effective letters will provide anecdotal evidence of important general abilities and character traits. The following is just a brief list of some important abilities and personal qualities that might be noticed about students who are actively involved with their students association:

1. They are likely to be perceived as having excellent organizational and management skills. For example, I believe this is true about Samantha Briand. I suspect she must have these assets because she was able to organize and coordinate a few workshops and other events that were widely attended and generally effective in accomplishing what she and her colleagues set out to accomplish. Professors want their graduate students to have strong organizational skills, and many potential employers look for evidence of it in job applicants. There are a lot of jobs in management, in general. Many professors need their graduate students to be good at management, too.

2. In order for any student association to work effectively, members  must be able to work together. It certainly helps if everyone gets along, too. Same thing is true in many workplace settings. Being an active member of a students association provides an opportunity to demonstrate an ability to work with others, and to work co-operatively. Again, these are things that will appeal to almost any potential employer, because their employees are likely to work together in offices, or on team projects. Likewise, graduate supervisors need their students to be able to work together and share space and resources. Efficiency and general morale are high when people get along, so all professors strive to avoid taking on a graduate student who are unable to work harmoniously with others.

3. Having superior communication skills. Effective communication, both in writing and orally, are abilities that most employers value highly in their employees. Being able to write and speak effectively is absolutely essential to success in graduate school.

4. Students who choose to become actively involved with their students association tend to demonstrate strong leadership abilities. Anyone looking to hire someone into a management position will be looking for leadership abilities.

5. Most observers will assume that active members of a students association are highly motivated toward having a successful and productive career, as long as they are organizing the right kinds of activities and events. For example, the fact that Samantha and the other executive members of the students association in our department focused so much on career-related activities over the past two years says a lot about the priorities for this particular cohort. A high priority seems to be choosing and navigating career paths. That looks good on them. But why might this matter to a potential graduate supervisor? Because no one wants to take on a student who is anything less than 100% committed to following through to the completion of the degree program. It can be highly disruptive to a professor’s research program when a graduate student suddenly decides to quit the program partway through. Similarly, saavy employers hire people who are motivated to do well and make progress, because that so often translates into excellent work habits.

If I spent more time thinking about it, I could come up with other examples of important abilities and aptitudes that students are able to display through active participation in their students association. The most important point, however, is that whether applying to graduate school, or for some type of scholarship or award, or applying for a job either within or outside of academic circles, students need eventually the endorsement of others who have discovered such things about them. Being a college or university undergrad provides ample opportunities to set oneself apart from the crowd in positive ways. Noticing these opportunities requires going beyond the lectures and textbooks, beyond earning academic credits and completing degree requirements.

Consider this. When you apply to graduate school in almost any STEM discipline or within the social sciences, nearly everyone else with whom you are competing will have letters from professors who supervised their undergraduate research. Most likely, you will to, so in this sense you all have a similar kind of relevant letters. Students who also make strong positive impressions on one or more professors in an alternative but still relevant context will stand to have somewhat unique and therefore more likely to be effective, letters of recommendation; that is, if the students take advantage of the likelihood that at least some professors are probably watching and noticing. In order to stand out and be noticed as a grad school applicant, it helps to have something that the majority of other applicants don’t have.

If you’re doubtful about whether the five observations I listed above are actually important when it comes to determining the effectiveness of a recommendation letter or the fate of an application to graduate school, I strongly recommend you read my previous post on the student evaluation form that invariably accompanies any letter of recommendation for graduate or professional school. You will see that the five specific abilities and aptitudes I listed above are among the ones graduate and professional schools explicitly ask people providing letters to include in their evaluation of an applicant.

Before ending my commentary for today, I want to emphasize that it will be up to Samantha to ensure that at least one of the people furnishing letters on her behalf actually benefits her cause by referring to the evidence of ability and character that came from her involvement with the students association. Should she talk about the experience and what it shows about her abilities in her personal statement? No, probably not. It would be too awkward, and it’s likely to come across as pretentious to try doing this in a personal statement, where it is not good to sound boastful. She really needs someone else to point all this out on her behalf. Even though her c.v. will list extracurricular activities including her work for the students association, it is unlikely to get noticed or have any impact as a line item in her c.v..

Benefiting in the ways in which I’ve been discussing will depend on whom she asks for letters, in at least two ways: First, there are good letter-writers and there are bad letter-writers, and it’s not always easy to know which professors write truly impactful recommendations and which ones put in little effort and end up creating flat, generic recommendation letters. Second, whether it’s a good, bad, or mediocre letter writer, she has to request a recommendation from a professor who has actually thought about her extracurricular activities in the way I have discussed them here. Even the best letter-writers will overlook this revealing evidence of her underlying personal qualities if its relevance has not occurred to them.