Originally posted December 5, 2011 — My choice of topics to write about today was inspired by a conversation I had with a student during a recent academic advising session. She is a Psychology major, about halfway through her program. She said she hopes to go to graduate school, and she wants to know if her prospects of getting in will be jeopardized if she takes a break from school, next semester.
I could see from her transcripts that she has good grades, but not excellent by any stretch of the imagination. More importantly though, I noticed that since she began her program, she had been taking only 3 courses each semester, rather than the normal full-time course load of 5 courses per semester. She explained that she has difficulty handling a full course load, but she can get good marks if she has a lighter load. It’s not that she has other things going on that compete with school for her time. She doesn’t have a job, or a time-consuming hobby, or anything like that. She just needs to be able to take her time to study and learn, she explained.
She feels she’s been putting everything she can into school, and now she needs a break because she has never really had one. Lately, both she and her family are worried that she will experience burnout or a have breakdown if she doesn’t take an academic break.
To be frank, I think she should take the time off. It’s not worth it to push oneself to the point of exhaustion or exasperation. She should take the break, and come back to complete the program when she feels ready.
But, really, she needs to forget about graduate school in Psychology — not just for now, but also for good. And that would be my advice to her, even if she decides not to take a break from her studies, next semester.
If that seems harsh, let me explain why it is really just realistic for this young person to start making a move to join the workforce, and plan to complete her degree program, on her own terms, and within a time-frame that will enable her to finish with good grades, and without undue stress or anxiety along the way.
In most Psychology graduate programs in North America, an applicant is accepted if, and only if, a faculty member indicates an interest and willingness to supervise the student’s graduate research. Psychology professors supervise graduate students because they need the help of graduate students to accomplish their own research objectives. In most cases, a professor will agree to accept a new graduate student only if he or she believes this applicant is the one who is most likely to benefit the research program over the next few years. Only the most promising applicant will be selected from among those who indicate they want this professor as a graduate supervisor. That is, if the professor chooses anyone at all.
An undergraduate student who is unable to handle a full course load and get solid grades, semester after semester, is unlikely to be able to handle the high demands of graduate studies and research. Professors only want to invite hard-working people who can deal with a full load, all the time, over a period of years — because this is what professors need from their graduate students.
Hopefully, a time will soon come when the student in my story has gainful employment with some sense of job security, and also a bachelor’s degree in Psychology. One might not know exactly when good, long-term employment will actually come along, but in the context of today’s rising unemployment levels and struggling economies, it might be a while. Her best strategy would be to drop graduate school from her long-term plans, and focus on goals that are realistic in light of what she is willing or able to do.
There has been a trend for some years now, at least at my university, of undergraduates enrolled as full-time students taking course loads that are less than completely full. Many students are willing to take an extra semester or two to complete their degree, if it means they can avoid feeling overwhelmed with school work and get good grades along the way. Lightening one’s course load is a sensible way to achieve that goal. But, there might be a high price to pay, later on, especially if one is hoping to proceed to graduate school.
Students often tell me: “I have a job, and I need to work so many hours a week, and I just can’t deal with a full course load.” That’s too bad, because there are a lot of other people out there who also have a job, and who work a similar number of hours each week, and who have a full course load and still get excellent grades in all of their classes. And those who can handle it are not doing something above and beyond normal expectations, either. In fact, taking a full course load in each semester, and getting good grades in every course, is the bare minimum of what is expected of all undergraduate students (except for those who are expressly enrolled on a part-time basis, and those with disabilities that would normally preclude such expectations).
That last point about minimum expectations is an important one, so I’ll repeat it: If all a student does is take a full course load every semester and get good grades, he or she is doing nothing out of the ordinary. Someone who is enrolled in an undergraduate program as a full-time student, but who is taking less than a full course load — whether they began the semester that way or else dropped a course along the way — are doing less than the minimum of what is expected.
Note that the minimum required is far less than the minimum expected. There are no immediate negative consequences for a student who is doing less than expected. As long a student meets or exceeds the minimum requirements in terms of academic performance, the school will happily continue to accept tuition payments. So, most students just continue along until they eventually complete their program of study. Most will attempt to then join the workforce. But, a significant proportion will apply to graduate school, hoping that an advanced degree will bring greater opportunity.
Few, if any, professors are interested in accepting as a new graduate student someone who was an ordinary undergraduate. This means that students who are hoping to go to graduate school need to do more than just take a full course load and get good grades. They need to stand apart from the crowd. There are a lot of ways to accomplish this. For example, one could volunteer to be a professor’s research assistant, or regularly attend symposia or workshops in the field of interest. If a student’s current school has a work-study or co-op program, that might be a good way to get valuable work experience and begin establishing a network within the field.
There are other ways to stand out from the crowd, but that is the topic of another column, so I won’t get into all the options, here. I think you get the point: Most undergraduate college and university students are not exceeding minimum expectations. Even the majority of those who think they will succeed simply by getting excellent grades are not really doing anything special. This is one reason why only a small fraction of college students end up in graduate school. Few are exceptional enough in terms of work-ethic and readiness to make personal sacrifices.
In this second guest post by Sophie Duranceau, a recent graduate from Concordia University (B.A. Psychology, Honours), she explains the financial benefits and other perks of working as a summer research assistant.
In another post, I highly suggested that undergraduate students take advantage of the summer to get some research experience. However, I am fully aware that this can be hard to do while you are juggling to make ends meet financially. Having been an undergraduate student not too long ago, I have decided to put together a list of suggestions to help you get summer research experience while keeping a roof over your head. Some options will definitely make your life much easier but they are all feasible if it’s really what you want to do – I have even tried some of them!
1- The best and easiest way to work on research and make money is to get an undergraduate summer research grant – which can later be listed in the Awards section of your CV. These grants are typically made available by various government bodies. How they work is that the government will provide you with X amount of money and the supervisor who sponsors you will have to contribute an additional Y%. This tends to be beneficial to the student – who makes a decent salary – and the professor – who gets a worker for about 25% of the price. The major research grants typically require that you work 35hrs/week for 16 weeks and provide you with 2 weeks off at the end of the summer. In other words, that would be your summer employment. You most certainly would not be making as much money as if you were working in a popular restaurant but you would still be making more or less a couple of hundreds of dollars per week. Alternatively, certain summer research grants may allow you to work part-time for less money. That would be an option that would leave time for you to get a higher income outside of school. All these government funded grants are competitive and usually have an application deadline around January. This means that you must plan ahead to find a professor that is willing to sponsor you and have a strong academic record.
2- The government funded research grants are not the only way that you could get paid to do research. Professors often do not advertise it but would be interested in taking on an undergraduate research assistant for the summer months. In an ideal world you may be able to find a professor who would be willing to take you on full-time but, more often than not, a professor will offer you a part-time position. You shouldn’t think less of it though. If you plan your weeks carefully, you can easily get involved on projects, get to know your professors, set yourself up for good reference letters, and get an authorship on a poster with a 15hrs/week position. You just need to make those 15hrs time efficient. Try to assess what the research needs are. For example, you could go into the laboratory 2hrs/day to run rodents in a maze for a 1 month period. In a different lab setting, it may be more beneficial to be in for a day and a half every week to run participants all day. Different types of research have different types of needs and this is what you need to assess. Some professors might also be willing to give you intensive short-term contracts to work full-time on a project. The only way to find out about these positions is to ask around.
3- If you are unable to succeed at finding a paid position, there are still a few options available to you. Most schools offer an undergraduate directed research course during the summer. Courses such as this one typically do not require you to sit in on a lecture and will provide you with 3 credits towards your degree if you complete a research project under the supervision of a professor. This might not provide you with money but it will free up your schedule for the following semester – which means you will have more time to work.
4- If you hold a job that allows you to work any day of the week and/or at night, you could try to free up 10-15hrs/week during weekdays to work on research. Ideally, you would want to get involved with a specific project rather than volunteer for random hours throughout the week. This will ensure that your time is spent efficiently and that your sacrifices will pay off.
5- You can auto-finance yourself to do research by applying for awards throughout the school year and saving them up for the summer – aside from the financial benefit, you will also be able to list those awards on your CV. It does not cost anything to apply for awards, yet most people don’t apply thinking they will never get one. Don’t be one of those people. Apply for as many awards as you can and you might just get a surprise in the mail! If you know ahead of time that you want to do research in the summer, you can save up that money and allow yourself to spend X amount a week during the summer months – as if your professor was giving you a salary for a part-time research assistant position. If your financial situation allows it, you could also save up some of your income during the academic year and use it as a salary for research in the summer. I know it might be tempting to spend all that money on a vacation to Mexico but the summer research experience is a much better investment in the long-term!
My last post was aimed at explaining how grades come in to play in the selection process, and the main message was: You don’t need to have the top grades to get into grad school, because that’s not what the decision-makers care most about. To help prove my point, I have reproduced, below, an email message I received a few years ago from someone who had been an undergraduate in Psychology at Concordia University, which is where I am a faculty member. I did not know the student while he was at Concordia, and I still have not met him in person, although we have had some email correspondence in recent months.
You will no doubt notice that he makes a few kind remarks about a book I wrote, but I want to assure you that the reason I am showing his entire unexpurgated message is for the sake of authenticity, and because he says a few other things that are more important, and which I want to say a few more words about, afterward.
Dear Dr Mumby,
As of May I have not been a student at Concordia but I keep getting e-mails about your grad info-sessions. Although I never attended your grad info-sessions I DID read your book and the e-mails have egged me on to contact you. I did not have particularly fantastic marks. Keeping this in mind, I followed all of your instruction and managed to get accepted into a Marital and Family Therapy (MFT) degree at Alliant (previously California School of Professional Psychology; birthplace of MFT and has had Carl Rogers among its faculty). I was packed and ready to go to California when I got a notice that I had been accepted into a masters in Criminology program at Cambridge UK. So here I am, a student who did not even make the academic cut-off for application, sitting in Cambridge (ranked second in the world, surpassed only by Harvard, third is Oxford); I am on the faculty/student liaison board for my course and am also the captain of my rowing crew (very big competitive sport here). My supervisor is very happy with my hard work and the faculty is amazing. Our library supposedly has the largest criminological collection in the world. I am confident that following the procedures in your book helped me get where I am today and I encourage you to read this letter, or part of it, at your lecture (although I would appreciate remaining anonymous). This just goes to show that marks are not everything to everyone and I caused myself large amounts of undue stress over them. Thank you,
P.S. I did get some lab experience in my undergrad and finished with my PSYC400.
This happy story is only a single anecdote, but it is highly useful because it refutes a couple of misconceptions I notice being frequently expressed by undergraduate Psychology students (and even by many academic advisors who don’t know better):
1. Many students place tremendous stress on themselves because they believe that they must attain top grades in almost every class in order to get into a good graduate school. Near the end of his message, this student admits that, in retrospect, he experienced much unnecessary stress over his grades. It is pretty obvious that this fellow was accepted at Cambridge, and at the professional psychology program in California, for reasons other than his undergraduate grades. It’s not in his email, but I can tell you that his GPA at graduation was slightly below the level required to be in our Honors program (3.30). As he indicates, it was also below the “academic cut-off” for application to Cambridge. That did not stop him from applying, and it did not stop him from getting in. Do you think he got in because of his GPA? Obviously, he got in because of other factors, which made up for the relative shortcoming in his GPA. I have emphasized this point many times during the past 2 years of writing this blog: There is so much more to preparing for graduate school and putting together a successful application than just getting good grades in your undergraduate program.
2. Students often tell me they need to be in the Honors program because they plan to go to graduate school after the baccalaureate. Although the Honors Psychology program in my department is intended to facilitate students’ preparation for graduate school, it is by no means necessary that a student be in that program in order to get into grad school. The student in this story was not in the Honors program.
3. Finally, he mentions in the postscript that he got some lab experience while an undergraduate. He refers to PSYC 400, which is a 6-credit course in which students do a research project under the supervision of a faculty member and write a thesis to report the findings. It is equivalent to the 6-credit project and thesis undertaken by students in our Honors program (ie., the Honors thesis). Importantly, however, the PSYC 400 thesis is an option for students who aren’t in the Honors program. The student in this story obtained ample undergraduate research experience, mostly by virtue of completing an undergraduate research thesis. It did not matter that it was not the Honors thesis, per se.
So, how did things work out for this person? Things have worked out very well for him, indeed. He is now a practicing marital and family therapist in Montreal,Quebec.
If grad school is in your plans, be sure to check out my other articles. I realize that students face a huge information gap that makes it difficult to know what’s really involved, and that’s why I strive to provide the best information and advice about preparing for, and applying successfully to, graduate school.
I have been a professor for the past 20 years. I have been an undergraduate academic advisor, I have served on graduate admissions committees, supervised several graduate students and dozens of undergraduate students, and over the years I have had countless discussions about graduate admissions with Graduate Program Directors and other faculty members, in a wide range of disciplines and domains (sciences, social sciences, fine arts, humanities), and at universities in the U.S. and Canada. I have the perspective of a real insider into what students need to do to stand apart from the crowd, and how to avoid the mistakes that prevent most grad-school applicants from getting in.
You can spend a lot of time collecting bits of advice from all over Internet about dealing with different components of an application, or various steps in the process, but most of it is very basic information that everyone can get (thus, no one gets an advantage from knowing about it), and most of it is just recycled on different websites so that someone can sell advertising space.
My main objective with the blog is to provide the most accurate and actionable information and advice, all in one location. For more information on my consulting services, visit this link or fill out the pre-consulting form using the following password: consult2017#mgs
In a recent post, I discussed some aspects of how the graduate admissions process tends to work in most disciplines in the social sciences and natural sciences. My goal was to explain why the people who make the decisions about who gets in and who doesn’t often don’t care as much about the absolute value of an applicant’s undergraduate GPA as most people would assume. One important message was that the GPA has to be high enough to show the applicant has the necessary academic abilities to make it through the graduate program without any problems. This does not require a stellar undergraduate GPA, just one that is good enough. Good enough tends to mean B+ or higher for most programs. Importantly, it does not do much to improve an applicant’s chances of getting accepted in most programs if the GPA is better than good enough. I did mention, however, that there is one exception, which I promised to explain in today’s post.
The exception can occur when an applicant’s GPA is not just very good, but truly outstanding (straight As or close to it; a GPA nearing 4.00). This applicant has a major advantage in the competition for admission, but it is not because he or she is expected to be a better graduate student than someone with a GPA in the B+ to A- range. The real basis for their advantage often comes down to m-o-n-e-y!
To understand what I mean, we need to first consider a few points:
First, we must consider that undergraduates whose grades are consistently very high (e.g., always over 90%; almost straight As; GPA of 3.85 or higher) have a very good chance of obtaining a graduate scholarship. Most entry scholarships for graduate students are based almost entirely on undergraduate grades. There might be a few other factors that receive some consideration, but the absolute value of the undergraduate GPA is almost always the most heavily weighted factor in determining who should be awarded a scholarship. When it comes to getting a scholarship for grad school, it really does make a difference if an applicant’s GPA is 3.90 versus 3.80.
Second, most professors, especially those with some years of experience in selecting and supervising grad students, do not assume that everyone with a scholarship will turn out to be a fabulous graduate student. A significant proportion of them turn out to be average, and some even turn out to be below average, in terms of their overall performance in grad school. Still, because the ability to get consistently high grades throughout college is correlated with several other abilities and positive character attributes, it is true that, in general, grad-school applicants with very good or outstanding GPAs turn out to be successful graduate students, more often than not. But, the graduate admissions process is not based on generalities or generalization. It is not based on well-known correlations, but instead, on the consideration of individual applicants. A complete application contains more direct indicators than grades of whether or not the student will be an asset to the potential graduate supervisor. Remember, the potential supervisor is usually the one who makes the call on whether or not to accept an applicant.
Quality at a bargain — or at least, a bargain
During my career I have known many students who, despite having earned a graduate scholarship, dropped out of a master’s or Ph.D. program after months of struggling. Not surprisingly, I have known many more scholarship recipients who ultimately performed well in grad school. But the latter observation does not give me good reason to look at whether an applicant has a scholarship when I’m trying to decide whether supervising that person for the next 4 to 6 years is likely to benefit me more than I would benefit from supervising a different applicant. I am mainly interested in the applicant’s promise as a researcher, character and personality, and motives for wanting to go to grad school and train under my supervision (i.e., career goals). The presence or absence of a scholarship does not help me determine any of those things.
Now, let me tell you something that may seem rather paradoxical: Despite what I just stated, the presence or absence of a scholarship can still influence my decision about whether or not to accept a particular applicant. The main reason is because, compared to an unfunded applicant, the one with a scholarship will not require as much financial support from me, or from my department or faculty, or from the research center to which I belong. The most important implication for me, as a Psychology professor who values my research program, is that I will not have to pay the scholarship recipients thousands of dollars from my research grant to help cover their cost of living. The grad students without a scholarship will consume a significant amount of my research grant each year that they remain unfunded or underfunded. The student with a scholarship may seem like a bargain.
Whether or not I take advantage of what seems like a bargain will depend on my circumstances. For instance, if I am already supervising as many grad students as I can handle, I won’t take any new students, regardless of whether or not they have a scholarship. If I do not currently have enough research funding, I might not be able to accept anyone who does not have a scholarship. If I have ample funding, I might not care whether or not a student has a scholarship. All faculty members who supervise graduate students have their own personal equation that takes into account their own needs, priorities, and circumstances. I have attempted here to give you a sense of how the money factor might come into play when I’m deciding whether or not to accept an applicant. It is similar for many other Psychology professors who supervise grad students.
[Note: Most of what I just described corresponds to what it is like for faculty members in fields of research that attract a lot of funding. For example, some types of scientific research are expensive to conduct and receive a lot of funding. In fields of research that are less endowed with funding sources, the relevance of whether the student has a scholarship may depend on somewhat different considerations].
In graduate programs that make their final selections by committee, you can bet that the same types of considerations come in to play. A student with an entry scholarship will not require as much financial support from the departmental budget. The savings can be banked, or they can be used to provide additional support to students without scholarships. A student with outstanding grades might not receive an entry scholarship, but they will be perceived by many professors as having a good chance of getting one next year; so, they are likely to require less financial support from the department at some point in the near future.
A short article was recently posted on the MyGraduateSchool website, written by Dr. Laura Buffardi — a graduate admissions consultant for the popular magazine Psychology Today. I do not know her personally, but a cursory search on her background reveals that Dr. Buffardi received her Ph.D. in 2010, and now she has a postdoctoral research position, and a cool gig with Psychology Today. I wouldn’t be surprised if she has other impressive accomplishments and ongoing projects. She certainly offers valuable advice to students who are thinking of graduate school in Psychology. In fact, most of her advice and insight also applies to the graduate-school application and admissions process in other disciplines within the social sciences and natural sciences. If you are thinking about graduate school, you should check out the resources she has to offer, even if you are not in Psychology.
Despite my sincere advocation, I will use the rest of my commentary to refute a statement Dr. Buffardi makes in the MyGraduateSchool article. She writes:
“GPA is consistently the most critical factor in admissions decisions.”
Like many other well-meaning consultants and advisors, Dr. Buffardi may in fact be perpetuating a popular misconception about the factors that determine acceptance or rejection by graduate programs in Psychology. Most people think the selection process should work in a way that emphasizes past academic performance, but the truth is, most Psychology graduate programs make selections in a way that bears little resemblance to common assumptions. You really have to be an insider to appreciate the way it works. Getting into graduate school and making it through does not make someone an insider to the graduate admissions process (unless they have become professors and supervise their own graduate students). It may make them insiders to what it’s like to be a graduate student or former graduate student, but as I have described in a previous post, grad students are not always a reliable source of good advice about what it takes to get into graduate school.
In a recent video-interview, which you can view on her Psychology Today site, Dr. Buffardi correctly asserts that there is a positive correlation between academic performance in undergraduate school and subsequent performance in graduate school. “The best predictor of your performance in grad school is your performance as an undergraduate, and committee’s know this” It is true, in general — students who achieve higher undergraduate grades also achieve higher measures of performance in graduate school. Although this relationship exists and the people on an admissions committee probably know about it, however, this does not mean that an applicant with a 3.80 GPA has a better chance of getting into a particular Psychology graduate program than another applicant who has a GPA of only 3.50. It sounds contradictory, but it really isn’t. It all has to do with the way most graduate programs in Psychology (within the U.S. and Canada) make their selections.
Grades are not tokens that can later be cashed in for something
Before I go on to describe my insider’s view of the graduate admissions process, I want to point out that the positive relationship between undergraduate and graduate-school performance is demonstrated by a post hoc analysis of what are, essentially, historical academic records. It is only a correlation, and it does not mean that getting higher grades will make an individual more likely to get into graduate school and succeed once there. It is necessary to have good grades if you want to get into graduate school; without them you have little chance of success. Importantly, what I really mean by good grades is good-enough — and for grades to be good-enough, they do not have to be as high as most students assume. If your grades are good enough to get into graduate school, you probably won’t significantly improve your chances of being accepted any further just by getting even higher grades. [There is one important exception to this, but it would be too much of a sidetrack to completely explain that here. Instead, I will cover it in my next post].
As long as you are achieving grades of B, B+, along with some A- and As, your grades are good enough for most graduate programs. It is wiser to focus ones preparation for graduate school on other things, where it can make a bigger difference, instead of just doing whatever it takes to get an A or A- in every class. The prevailing notion seems to be that if you get enough of the really valuable tokens (grades in the A range), you get to cash out at the end of undergraduate school and receive some type of more tangible reward in exchange; like an acceptance letter from a graduate school. It just does not work that way.
I have already written about how the graduate admissions process tends to work in Psychology graduate programs and, in fact, it is not much different from most other Master’s and Ph.D. programs within the social sciences and natural sciences. I won’t bother to repeat all the important aspects of graduate admissions here, but I’ll just make the key point that decisions about individual applicants are ultimately made by a particular faculty member who the applicant has indicated he or she would prefer to have for a graduate supervisor. To put it in even more simple terms: Psychology professors choose their own graduate students, and they usually only consider applicants who have already chosen them. In most Psychology graduate programs, admissions decisions are not made by a committee. This is true both for master’s and for Ph.D. programs in Psychology. (Psy.D. programs, and master’s programs in allied fields, such as Counseling, Social Work, and Educational Psychology, are more likely to make admissions decisions as a committee).
It’s all about the research
It is important to understand the motives psychology professors have for accepting new graduate students. Every professor is an individual, and each will therefore have his or her own set of personal criteria and methods for reaching decisions about whether or not to accept a new grad student. But despite the individual variations, there is a certain common interest shared by most university psychology professors, which is also the most important motive most of them have for taking on a new grad student. A vast majority of university psychology professors do research, and they supervise graduate students because doing so is necessary in order to accomplish their research goals. In simple terms: Most psychology professors accept a new grad student only if the following four conditions are met:
1) the professor currently has a need for additional research trainees in order to carry out the research agenda over the next few years.
2) there is evidence that this particular student will be a better researcher than the others who have also applied to work with this professor.
3) there are no reasons to suspect that the student will have any significant problems with the academic or clinical-training aspects of the program.
4) there are no reasons to suspect that the student has any kind of personality or character flaw, or interpersonal inadequacies, that could make it unpleasant to work with them for a few years, or that would spoil the environment for the other students who are part of the professor’s research team.
What do the insiders think about GPA and GRE scores?
Most university professors who have been involved in selecting and supervising graduate students will tell you that they don’t usually care much whether a particular applicant has a GPA in the B+ range (say, in the low 3s on the common GPA scale that goes from 0.00 to 4.00, or they have a GPA that is more like A- (mid 3s), or even close to A (upper 3s – 4.00). (By the way, not all universities use this grading scale, and there are a surprising number of different scales in use, but this is the most common one and I think most readers of this blog are at least vaguely familiar with it).
The reason why most psychology professors do not care about the particular GPAs of their potential graduate students is because it is not relevant to the primary motivation for supervising graduate students. Grades are not usually a major consideration in admissions decisions because grades have little to do with the applicant’s potential as a researcher, and they usually have almost no relevance to determining whether or not the student will be a pleasant person to supervise. As I mentioned above, the most important thing for a professor is that their graduate students contribute to the operation and development of the professor’s research program, and the second most important thing is that the student is not a pain-in-the-ass to supervise.
Dr. Buffardi claims that an applicant’s GPA and GRE scores are the most influential factor in determining whether they are accepted or rejected, followed by letters of recommendation, the personal statement, and past experience. She has it backwards. The letters, personal statement, and previous research experience are much more influential in the eyes of most professors, especially those who have more than a few years experience at selecting and supervising graduate students. GPA and GRE scores receive significantly less consideration — as long as they are good enough.
[ Read a letter from a psychology student who graduated with a B+ average and was accepted into a master’s program at Cambridge University, as well as at one of the most prestigious professional psychology graduate programs in the U.S. ]
GRE scores are becoming less and less important in recent years. As part of a trend that began more than a decade ago, many graduate schools no longer require applicants to submit GRE scores. This trend seems to be more prevalent in Canada, but it is also happening in the U.S. This trend toward a diminishing role for standardized exam scores is exemplified by the Psychology graduate programs at my university — Concordia University.
About 12 years ago, we decided that we would no longer require applicants to submit GRE scores. By “we”, I mean the all the fulltime faculty members in our department who supervise graduate students voted on whether we should drop the requirement or retain it (basically, all 40+ of us supervise graduate students). Most applicants to our graduate programs still submit GRE scores, and there is no problem with that, but none of them have to submit GRE scores. Why did we get rid of the requirement? The same reason that dozens of other Psychology graduate programs have made the same move: Because a huge majority of the faculty members in our department do not believe GRE scores are useful when it comes to discriminating between applicants who are likely to be good graduate students and those with less promise. I can’t remember if it was just a huge majority of us, or whether the vote against the GRE requirement was unanimous. One thing I can say for sure, though, is that no one made an argument in favor of keeping the requirement.
Let’s put this in perspective to show that it wasn’t just a strange decision by a small group of idiosyncratic psychologists at some small university. Concordia University has a large Psychology department, with over 40 tenured professors along with a few more-junior faculty members who are on the track to a tenured position. We offer four different graduate programs — master’s and Ph.D. programs in both clinical psychology and nonclinical (ie., experimental and research) psychology. Our programs are CPA and APA accredited, so there is nothing unusual about how we do things in our graduate programs. I would wager that in the Psychology departments that still require applicants to submit GRE scores, a large proportion of the faculty members don’t really use GRE scores to decide whether or not to accept a particular applicant.
Importantly, I still advise all students who are planning to apply to graduate school in Psychology to write the GRE General exam, even if they happen to know the graduate program that interests them the most does not require GRE scores. This is simply because, if a student is doing things right, he or she will probably be applying to more than one program, and it is likely that at least one of those programs, if not most, will still require GRE scores. It is fallacy, however, to assume that if they want to see your GRE scores, then those scores must play an important role in the decision-making process. I admit that I sometimes check to see how an applicant did on the GRE, but only because I’m curious to see how their scores compare to my GRE scores from 25 years ago!
Do the foregoing points mean that all psychology professors will give only secondary consideration to a grad-school applicant’s GPA or GRE scores? No, it doesn’t mean that. It just reflects how the majority of psychology professors view GPAs and GRE scores. There is still much variation among individual professors, and it is still possible to find veteran professors who look to GPA and GRE scores when they make decisions about who to take on as a graduate student. The fact that there are still professors out there who care a lot about grades when they are choosing grad student does not change the fact that most do not. The lack of uniformity isn’t really surprising, when you consider that we are all allowed to make our own decisions concerning grad school applicants. New faculty members are not told how to select grad students; so understandably, we all start off doing it in a way that makes sense to us. Over time and with experience, many professors change their tactics as they discover that the criteria they used during those first few years were not reliable way to distinguish really good graduate students from average ones. Remember, most psychology professors judge how “good” a graduate student is by their research abilities and accomplishments, work ethic, and interpersonal and communication skills.
In might come as a surprise, but most psychology professors won’t pay much attention to how their grad students do in the few classes they take. Did the Ph.D. student get a B or an A in this or that graduate seminar? It really only matters to the student. By the way, one does not have to be in graduate school for long to realize that most classes are graded as simply PASS versus FAIL, and that it is rare for a graduate student to FAIL a class. Some graduate classes might involve a letter-grade evaluation (the student receives an A, A-, B+, etc), but it makes no difference to the main concerns of most professors if their grad students get Bs or As. Typically, a professor supervises graduate students because these students are essential to accomplishing the professor’s research mission. There is nothing in it for the graduate supervisor if the graduate student gets an A in some seminar, and there is also no cost to the supervisor if the student’s grade is B-.
By the way, Dr. Buffardi’s Psychology Today webpage includes an informative interview with a Psychology professor who has a lot of experience with the graduate admissions process. If you pay close attention to what this insider says, you will notice that he confirms several of the key points I have just made, including:
1) Grades and GRE scores do not trump other factors like letters of recommendation, personal statements, or the degree of ‘match’ between the student and the program. Although he states near the end of the interview, “…good grades and strong GRE scores will earn you serious consideration,” this is not the same as saying they begin with the grades and then move on to other considerations. I suspect he may also agree, if asked about it, that nearly all applicants have good grades, and most of them have strong GRE scores. Importantly, he doesn’t say anywhere that higher grades and stronger GRE scores are more likely to result in acceptance.
2) Individual faculty members make their own decisions about which applicants to accept, place on a wait-list, or reject. Only the individual faculty member knows how he or she weighs the different elements of a complete application.
3) Most individual faculty members base their decisions on their general and overall impression they have of an applicant.
There is no standard protocol according to which all graduate admissions committees operate, but the Psychology Today interview with the graduate-admissions insider gives a good picture of one common variant of the general process in Psychology departments. Note his comment about how, in years long past, he would meet with his colleagues and they would discuss individual applicants as a committee, but nowadays the decisions are left up to individual faculty members. It is not stated explicitly in the interview, but it is implied, that individual faculty members decide whom to accept and supervise based on the match between the research interests of the applicant and the faculty member’s particular area(s) of specialization… if there are no deficiencies in the applicant’s overall profile.
There are many more key aspects of the graduate admissions process that go unmentioned in the interview, but that is understandable considering there are obvious limits to how long an interview can be. As another true insider to graduate admissions in Psychology, I try to fill in those gaps with this blog, in my book, and through the seminars I conduct with undergraduate students.
One of the most common mistakes that students make is to wait too long to start preparing for their graduate-school applications. The result is that several compromises are made along the way, and a rushed job to make an application deadline often ends up in rejection, a missed opportunity, and a blow to one’s self-esteem.
A great deal of research is needed to find the right programs in light of your specific interests or objectives, so you need to get busy on this at least a couple of months before application deadlines. Do not underestimate the amount of time involved in properly filling out application forms (several hours) and writing a good personal statement (several days), or the typical delay between when transcripts or standardized test scores are requested and when they actually arrive at their destinations (several weeks).
You also need to give professors at least a few weeks notice prior to when you will need a letter of recommendation.
Many programs stick to their deadlines and will not consider an application if any of the required components are missing or late. It is your responsibility to make sure that all of your application materials have arrived and are in your file by the deadline. Don’t make the mistake of assuming that because a document has been sent, it has also been received.
Organization is the key to dealing with multiple items for multiple application packages. Use a checklist to keep track of those things you have taken care of for each application, and which things remain to be dealt with. You need to follow up at each end, first to make sure that materials have been sent, and later to make sure they have been received.
There are several advantages to beating the application deadline by a couple of weeks: It may allow you enough time to respond to unexpected problems that occur close to the deadline, such as unfulfilled requests for transcripts, test scores, or letters of recommendation. Getting your application in a couple of weeks before the deadline will also indicate that you are well-organized and enthusiastic about the program. Your application may receive a closer evaluation if the admissions committee begins reviewing files before the application deadline.
Financial support for graduate studies is another area where many students fail to act soon enough and miss opportunities as a result. You should act immediately to find out about scholarships and fellowships that you are eligible to apply for. Be aware that in most cases the deadline for application for scholarships and fellowships comes long before deadlines for application to graduate schools. In other words, if you’re applying to enter graduate program next September, then you’d better find out what you need to know about scholarships and fellowships by this September. More great articles on paying for grad school and How much does grad school cost? Can I afford it? available at MyGraduateSchool.com
Being organized, starting early and being certain of your reasons for going to graduate school in the first place will be invaluable to you as you get through the application process. Going the extra mile and avoiding the pitfalls and mistakes that your competitors will likely be making will get you into the graduate program of your choice.