scholarships for graduate school

Graduate School Admission and the Influence of a Stellar GPA

In a recent post, I discussed some aspects of how the graduate admissions process tends to work in most disciplines in the social sciences and natural sciences. My goal was to explain why the people who make the decisions about who gets in and who doesn’t often don’t care as much about the absolute value of an applicant’s undergraduate GPA as most people would assume. One important message was that the GPA has to be high enough to show the applicant has the necessary academic abilities to make it through the graduate program without any problems. This does not require a stellar undergraduate GPA, just one that is good enough. Good enough tends to mean B+ or higher for most programs. Importantly, it does not do much to improve an applicant’s chances of getting accepted in most programs if the GPA is better than good enough. I did mention, however, that there is one exception, which I promised to explain in today’s post.

The exception can occur when an applicant’s GPA is not just very good, but truly outstanding (straight As or close to it; a GPA nearing 4.00). This applicant has a major advantage in the competition for admission, but it is not because he or she is expected to be a better graduate student than someone with a GPA in the B+ to A- range. The real basis for their advantage often comes down to m-o-n-e-y!

To understand what I mean, we need to first consider a few points:

First, we must consider that undergraduates whose grades are consistently very high (e.g., always over 90%; almost straight As; GPA of 3.85 or higher) have a very good chance of obtaining a graduate scholarship. Most entry scholarships for graduate students are based almost entirely on undergraduate grades. There might be a few other factors that receive some consideration, but the absolute value of the undergraduate GPA is almost always the most heavily weighted factor in determining who should be awarded a scholarship. When it comes to getting a scholarship for grad school, it really does make a difference if an applicant’s GPA is 3.90 versus 3.80.

Second, most professors, especially those with some years of experience in selecting and supervising grad students, do not assume that everyone with a scholarship will turn out to be a fabulous graduate student. A significant proportion of them turn out to be average, and some even turn out to be below average, in terms of their overall performance in grad school. Still, because the ability to get consistently high grades throughout college is correlated with several other abilities and positive character attributes, it is true that, in general, grad-school applicants with very good or outstanding GPAs turn out to be successful graduate students, more often than not. But, the graduate admissions process is not based on generalities or generalization. It is not based on well-known correlations, but instead, on the consideration of individual applicants. A complete application contains more direct indicators than grades of whether or not the student will be an asset to the potential graduate supervisor. Remember, the potential supervisor is usually the one who makes the call on whether or not to accept an applicant.

Quality at a bargain — or at least, a bargain

During my career I have known many students who, despite having earned a graduate scholarship, dropped out of a master’s or Ph.D. program after months of struggling. Not surprisingly, I have known many more scholarship recipients who ultimately performed well in grad school. But the latter observation does not give me good reason to look at whether an applicant has a scholarship when I’m trying to decide whether supervising that person for the next 4 to 6 years is likely to benefit me more than I would benefit from supervising a different applicant. I am mainly interested in the applicant’s promise as a researcher, character and personality, and motives for wanting to go to grad school and train under my supervision (i.e., career goals). The presence or absence of a scholarship does not help me determine any of those things.

Now, let me tell you something that may seem rather paradoxical: Despite what I just stated, the presence or absence of a scholarship can still influence my decision about whether or not to accept a particular applicant. The main reason is because, compared to an unfunded applicant, the one with a scholarship will not require as much financial support from me, or from my department or faculty, or from the research center to which I belong. The most important implication for me, as a Psychology professor who values my research program, is that I will not have to pay the scholarship recipients thousands of dollars from my research grant to help cover their cost of living. The grad students without a scholarship will consume a significant amount of my research grant each year that they remain unfunded or underfunded. The student with a scholarship may seem like a bargain.

Whether or not I take advantage of what seems like a bargain will depend on my circumstances. For instance, if I am already supervising as many grad students as I can handle, I won’t take any new students, regardless of whether or not they have a scholarship. If I do not currently have enough research funding, I might not be able to accept anyone who does not have a scholarship. If I have ample funding, I might not care whether or not a student has a scholarship. All faculty members who supervise graduate students have their own personal equation that takes into account their own needs, priorities, and circumstances. I have attempted here to give you a sense of how the money factor might come into play when I’m deciding whether or not to accept an applicant. It is similar for many other Psychology professors who supervise grad students.

[Note: Most of what I just described corresponds to what it is like for faculty members in fields of research that attract a lot of funding. For example, some types of scientific research are expensive to conduct and receive a lot of funding. In fields of research that are less endowed with funding sources, the relevance of whether the student has a scholarship may depend on somewhat different considerations].

In graduate programs that make their final selections by committee, you can bet that the same types of considerations come in to play. A student with an entry scholarship will not require as much financial support from the departmental budget. The savings can be banked, or they can be used to provide additional support to students without scholarships. A student with outstanding grades might not receive an entry scholarship, but they will be perceived by many professors as having a good chance of getting one next year; so, they are likely to require less financial support from the department at some point in the near future.

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How to Ask For a Letter of Recommendation

This time of year, many students are arranging for letters of recommendation to support their scholarship applications, and the same letters will again be needed for grad-school applications. This typically involves approaching two or three professors to ask for this favor. Various topics related to letters of recommendation are discussed in other articles that are posted on MyGraduateSchool.com, including one article in particular that I would strong recommend. It provides tips on how you can go about getting the most effective reference letters for grad school, but here I just want to talk about correct ways to solicit a letter. There is nothing complicated about asking someone for a letter of recommendation, but it takes a little bit of tact.

First, just send a short email to ask if he or she is willing to provide a letter. Don’t attach documents like your c.v., transcripts, or personal statement. That will come later, if you do in fact get a positive response to your request for a letter of recommendation.

Your initial email should simply explain that you will soon be applying to graduate school, and you hope they can provide a letter of recommendation for you. Indicate how many programs you are applying to and by which date the first one would be needed.

Timing is important. The right time to ask someone for a letter is about 4 or 5 weeks before you need it. That might seem like a long time, but it is customary to give professors a long time to do such things, and most will be at least a little annoyed if you ask for a letter of recommendation less than a week before you need it.

Remember, the first step only involves asking for the favor. Once you get a commitment, however, its important that you follow-up properly, which mainly involves providing the things they need to: 1) write a good letter, 2) get all copies out by the deadlines, and 3) get it all done with minimal hassle.

In another article, I cover some of the things you can do to improve the chances of a really good letter of recommendation. In a nut shell, it depends on how well, and in what capacity, the person writing the letter (i.e., the referee) knows you, but you might need to meet for a chat, or provide a copy of your personal statement, your c.v., or transcripts. Offer these things, but keep in mind that not everyone will use them. You also need to give your referees any forms and mailing envelopes. If possible, arrange to drop these things off, in person. Sometimes, a face-to-face meeting can leave a strong and positive impression that ends up being reflected in the letter of recommendation. Most importantly, however, the meeting simply gives your referees a chance to ask any questions they have. They may ask you some relevant questions about your graduate school or career plans, so be prepared to answer. Remember to thank them for their time and effort.

If it is not possible to meet in-person, for any reason, then provide all pertinent information in an email and attach any forms that are available in electronic format. Paper forms can be left for professors, as most will have an office and a mailbox, somewhere.

Make it easy for the person writing the letter. Put the addresses and deadlines of all the programs to which you are applying in a single document – if possible, on one page – and list them in the order in which the deadlines will come up. For each one, indicate whether or not there is an evaluation form to complete along with the letter. Also indicate what the referee is supposed to do once the letter is completed.

Take a look at this blog post by “thoughts on teaching” that addresses some of the special circumstances that you may have to consider when asking a referee for many letters of recommendation (5 or more).

Most programs still want the referee to either send the letter directly to the graduate school by regular mail, or else place it in a sealed and signed envelope for the student to include with the rest of the application materials. In the last few years, many graduate programs have started accepting letters of recommendation via email (verified with a digital signature), or else submitted on the program’s website. Don’t make your referee figure out what to do with each one of your letters – just tell them.

It is up to you to make sure the letters are submitted by the deadline. Send an email to your referees a few days before the deadline, just to confirm that the letters have been sent or will be ready on time. It’s not necessary to send more than one reminder, as long as you do it just a few days before the deadline. If you remind them too early, they are more likely to just put it off until another day, and perhaps end up forgetting altogether.

[ If grad school is in your plans, be sure to check out the archives, as well as my most recent posts. I realize that students face a huge information gap that makes it difficult to know what’s really involved, and that’s why I strive to provide the best information and advice about preparing for, and applying successfully to, graduate school.

I have been a professor for the past 18 years. I have been an undergraduate academic advisor, I have served on graduate admissions committees, supervised several graduate students and dozens of undergraduate students, and over the years I have had countless discussions about graduate admissions with Graduate Program Directors and other faculty members, in a wide range of disciplines and domains (sciences, social sciences, fine arts, humanities), and at universities in the U.S. and Canada. I have the perspective of a real insider into what students need to do to stand apart from the crowd, and how to avoid the mistakes that prevent most grad-school applicants from getting in.

You can spend a lot of time collecting bits of advice from all over Internet about dealing with different components of an application, or various steps in the process, but most of it is very basic information that everyone can get (thus, no one gets an advantage from knowing about it), and most of it is just recycled on different websites so that someone can sell advertising space.

The only thing you’ll ever see advertised here is my book and e-book. My main objective with the blog is to provide most accurate and actionable information and advice. I don’t get paid to do it, although if someone buys a copy of my book, or an e-book, I do make a few bucks. So far, however, that hasn’t exactly been happening a lot. So, rest assured, I’m not doing this for the money! ]