careers in psychology


DIY Career Networking for University Students

Posted December 31, 2016 — Several days ago, I attended a very special event for undergraduate psychology students at Concordia University, in Montreal (where I am a professor). It was a career-networking workshop. Its aim was to introduce students to a few potential career paths.

The Psychology department at Concordia U is relatively large by most standards, with around 1400 or so students enrolled in undergraduate programs leading to a B.A. or B.Sc. About 150 of those students attended the networking event. This was beyond maximum seating capacity for the room, and some people had to stand. Two things were obvious from the size of the crowd: 1) there is great demand among psychology students for information and advice on potential career paths, and 2) the people who organized the event at Concordia did a fantastic job of getting the word out to the large community of students. I’ll say more about this effort, later.

The evening began with a series of presentations from former psychology students who earned a bachelor’s degree and went on to have successful careers in psychology-related occupations. There was a pyscho-educator, a social worker, a marketing consultant and manager, and an economics and political science researcher. There were also presentations about postgraduate studies in law, and in clinical psychology. The guest speakers talked about what they do in their occupations, or their postgraduate studies, and the paths they took from an undergraduate in psychology to where they are today. After the presentations, they graciously stayed for another couple hours to mingle with students and answer more questions, over wine and snacks.

The entire evening was enjoyable, interesting and informative, and from the conversations I had with students there, it was clear the main objective of the workshop was achieved. For many students, it was a huge eye-opener to the wide range of potential career paths to choose from within psychology and the allied fields of counseling, social work, and educational psychology. Although the guest speakers represented only a few of the many career possibilities for someone with a bachelor’s degree in psychology, their personal stories shared a common element of hope for current students. Contrary to popular misconception, there is something you can do with a bachelor’s degree in psychology! In fact, there are many options and possible careers one could have with a psychology degree. I hope to discuss this general topic much further, in future blog posts.

Today, I want to focus on something else. I want to applaud the individuals who had the initiative to organize the workshop and did all the work to make it a tremendous success. Every student I spoke to that evening was excited and eager for the chance to learn more about potential careers. As much as anything, they all seemed grateful to the people responsible for putting on this event.

So, my congratulations and my thanks go to the people at Concordia University who organized the workshop. I hope it becomes a recurring event in our Psychology department. No doubt, students in any discipline would appreciate such a well-organized, relevant career-related, social event. After all, aren’t most people in university there to get an education they can leverage into some kind of employment or career advantage when it comes time to join the workforce?

Before I identify the fine folks who organized the career-networking event, let’s have a bit of fun and try to guess who they are. Dear reader, who you think are the most likely people in a typical university to get the idea for such a useful event, and then gather the resources to make it all happen?

Obviously, this was the work of some dedicated career counselors, right?

No, there were no career counselors involved in putting on this event.

Someone with an administrative position in the Psychology department, such as the department chairperson, or the undergraduate program director?

Surprisingly, no (or maybe, not surprisingly – depends on who you ask).

Any academic advisors responsible for this brilliant idea?


Perhaps the Dean, or a Vice-Dean in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences?


Were there any university faculty members behind this event, at all?

None, at all.

You‘ve probably figured it out by now…

The career-networking event was organized entirely by a group of students in the Psychology department: The executive members of the Concordia University Psychology Association (CUPA).

So, congratulations CUPA! It was a very enjoyable and informative evening!


Imagine that — a student association with leaders who commit a great deal of time, effort, and other resources to helping their peers! (Isn’t that what they are there for?) CUPA is certainly not the first psychology student association to organize some type of career-related event. A quick search of just a few universities will almost certainly turn up some type of career- or graduate-school related workshop or similar activity being planned or promoted.

A few years ago I had the good fortune to be invited to speak at a workshop on graduate school and career paths in psychology at Simon Fraser University, in beautiful British Columbia. It was an all-day affair, very much geared towards careers requiring a master’s or doctorate degree in psychology or a related field. The chief organizers of this event were the executive members of Simon Fraser’s Psychology Students Union. A few months earlier, they hosted a workshop on finding successful employment with a bachelor’s degree in psychology. At universities all across North America – serious and capable undergraduate student organizations are working to fill huge information gaps that students want and need very badly to have filled. The most pertinent gaps have to do with career planning.

You might be asking yourself, isn’t the university and its academic staff responsible for providing students with some type of career orientation, or preparation for finding work related to their degrees? Shouldn’t students at least be demanding this?

No, actually this is not the responsibility of the universities, at least not the public ones. [We can debate another time about whether students who pay sky-high tuition and fees to attend a private university should be entitled to receive this type of career-related assistance from their institution]. When students enroll in a bachelor’s program they are paying for an education, not training for a specific job or guaranteed placement into an occupation related to their studies. It is definitely a mistake for students to wait around for their professors to put any effort into providing this kind of valuable advisement and mentoring, because quite frankly, this is not something the university administration expects or requires its academic faculty members to do. It is simply not in a professor’s job description.

In fact, it’s rare to find a university professor who cares much about the non-academic concerns of the undergraduate student community. Most professors are middle-aged or older individuals with a relatively low-stress job, a very good salary, excellent benefits, and a degree of job security that is unparalleled among almost all other occupations. As cynical as it may seem, most are unable to relate to the needs of the 20-somethings who have no secure job, only uncertain prospects for the future, and without any idea of how they might use their university education as a springboard into the workforce.

A noticeable difference between the career workshop at Simon Fraser U. and the one at Concordia last week was that several faculty members from the Psychology department were present and noticeably involved in support and organization of the Simon Fraser event, including the department Chair, the undergraduate program director, and a few academic advisors. The department Chair was the one who invited me. In contrast, I did not see any Concordia faculty members at the CUPA event. While there might have been some kind of behind-the-scenes support of which I am unaware, it was not evident that night.

The point I want to make here is, while students may not be justified in demanding career-planning services from their academic departments, they are certainly justified in requesting it, and they are justified in complaining when their department makes no effort to provide them with it. It would be easy for almost any university Psychology department to provide this kind of thing for their students. Just a small effort and short time-commitment from a few experienced professors can help provide dozens of students with the most valuable career-related insight and advice they will ever receive in university. Problem is, this also requires professors who possess some measure of concern for the needs of their students, and who understand students’ need to translate their investment in a university education into a livelihood. Sadly, such an attitude is dearly lacking among the faculty members in many undergraduate university programs.

There are exceptions, of course. A good example of a psychology department where the Chair, UPD, and other professors actively strive to provide students with useful information, advice, and career guidance, is the Psychology department at MacEwan University. A few weeks after the workshop at Simon Fraser U, I was invited to MacEwan to give a talk on preparing for and applying to graduate school in psychology. Around 80-90 people attended my talk, mostly undergraduate psychology students, once again showing the great demand that exists for this type of information. This event was planned and organized almost entirely by the department Chair and a few other faculty members. They were wonderful hosts, and it was evident from my conversations with MacEwan psychology students that they were grateful to their department Chair for putting on the event, and for being generally attuned to the interests and needs of the students at other times, as well.

Psychology departments like those at Simon Fraser and MacEwan University — where the faculty are attuned to the needs of their students and willing to devote some time and effort to helping — are rare these days, yet students need this support now more than ever. More common are departments composed primarily (but never entirely) of professors who are mostly arrogant, self-centered researchers with delusions about their own importance or usefulness, and who could not care less about the students with whom they share the hallways. What type of Psychology department is yours?


Most universities do have some kind of career-placement or career-planning service department where students can get access to career counseling and other resources. Those services tend to be funded through students’ academic fees. But, the extent and quality of the services vary quite a lot from one school to another. When career-counseling resources are lacking, local student groups can take matters into their own hands. Even when a university provides substantial and good quality career-planning and placement services, the counselors and other staff must allocate limited time and resources across numerous different areas, disciplines, and industries. With some effort, a more focused group of capable students can go far beyond the generic forms of advice and guidance that are commonly provided by university career counselors.

I will end my commentary for today with some advice for students in any field of study, not just psychology:

1. If you are not already a member of your department’s undergraduate student association, look them up and find out what kinds of events they organize. Don’t be surprised or too disappointed, however, if it turns out that your student association spends most of their time and resources on social events and parties, and puts little or no effort into useful education or career-related initiatives. Some student groups are just better organized than others. You won’t know about yours until you check them out. Keep in mind that there is frequent turnover in leadership in these organizations, so their activities may change quite a bit from one year to the next.

2. Get your student leaders onto organizing a career-networking workshop! If you’re not part of the team, you can still offer to help out. It might involve some valuable networking!

3. Don’t wait for your department, faculty, or institution to provide you with this kind of thing. If you have supportive professors around you, that’s great – their involvement should bring considerable benefits. If you are in a program in which the professors could not care less about what happens to you after you graduate, this is unfortunate, but the situation is not hopeless. You will just need to be more self-reliant.


Think twice about trading a full course load for higher grades

Originally posted December 5, 2011 — My choice of topics to write about today was inspired by a conversation I had with a student during a recent academic advising session. She is a Psychology major, about halfway through her program. She said she hopes to go to graduate school, and she wants to know if her prospects of getting in will be jeopardized if she takes a break from school, next semester.

I could see from her transcripts that she has good grades, but not excellent by any stretch of the imagination. More importantly though, I noticed that since she began her program, she had been taking only 3 courses each semester, rather than the normal full-time course load of 5 courses per semester. She explained that she has difficulty handling a full course load, but she can get good marks if she has a lighter load. It’s not that she has other things going on that compete with school for her time. She doesn’t have a job, or a time-consuming hobby, or anything like that. She just needs to be able to take her time to study and learn, she explained.

She feels she’s been putting everything she can into school, and now she needs a break because she has never really had one. Lately, both she and her family are worried that she will experience burnout or a have breakdown if she doesn’t take an academic break.

To be frank, I think she should take the time off. It’s not worth it to push oneself to the point of exhaustion or exasperation. She should take the break, and come back to complete the program when she feels ready.

But, really, she needs to forget about graduate school in Psychology — not just for now, but also for good. And that would be my advice to her, even if she decides not to take a break from her studies, next semester.

If that seems harsh, let me explain why it is really just realistic for this young person to start making a move to join the workforce, and plan to complete her degree program, on her own terms, and within a time-frame that will enable her to finish with good grades, and without undue stress or anxiety along the way.

In most Psychology graduate programs in North America, an applicant is accepted if, and only if, a faculty member indicates an interest and willingness to supervise the student’s graduate research. Psychology professors supervise graduate students because they need the help of graduate students to accomplish their own research objectives. In most cases, a professor will agree to accept a new graduate student only if he or she believes this applicant is the one who is most likely to benefit the research program over the next few years. Only the most promising applicant will be selected from among those who indicate they want this professor as a graduate supervisor. That is, if the professor chooses anyone at all.

An undergraduate student who is unable to handle a full course load and get solid grades, semester after semester, is unlikely to be able to handle the high demands of graduate studies and research. Professors only want to invite hard-working people who can deal with a full load, all the time, over a period of years — because this is what professors need from their graduate students.

Hopefully, a time will soon come when the student in my story has gainful employment with some sense of job security, and also a bachelor’s degree in Psychology. One might not know exactly when good, long-term employment will actually come along, but in the context of today’s rising unemployment levels and struggling economies, it might be a while. Her best strategy would be to drop graduate school from her long-term plans, and focus on goals that are realistic in light of what she is willing or able to do.

There has been a trend for some years now, at least at my university, of undergraduates enrolled as full-time students taking course loads that are less than completely full. Many students are willing to take an extra semester or two to complete their degree, if it means they can avoid feeling overwhelmed with school work and get good grades along the way. Lightening one’s course load is a sensible way to achieve that goal. But, there might be a high price to pay, later on, especially if one is hoping to proceed to graduate school.

Students often tell me: “I have a job, and I need to work so many hours a week, and I just can’t deal with a full course load.” That’s too bad, because there are a lot of other people out there who also have a job, and who work a similar number of hours each week, and who have a full course load and still get excellent grades in all of their classes. And those who can handle it are not doing something above and beyond normal expectations, either. In fact, taking a full course load in each semester, and getting good grades in every course, is the bare minimum of what is expected of all undergraduate students (except for those who are expressly enrolled on a part-time basis, and those with disabilities that would normally preclude such expectations).

That last point about minimum expectations is an important one, so I’ll repeat it: If all a student does is take a full course load every semester and get good grades, he or she is doing nothing out of the ordinary. Someone who is enrolled in an undergraduate program as a full-time student, but who is taking less than a full course load — whether they began the semester that way or else dropped a course along the way — are doing less than the minimum of what is expected.

Note that the minimum required is far less than the minimum expected. There are no immediate negative consequences for a student who is doing less than expected. As long a student meets or exceeds the minimum requirements in terms of academic performance, the school will happily continue to accept tuition payments. So, most students just continue along until they eventually complete their program of study. Most will attempt to then join the workforce. But, a significant proportion will apply to graduate school, hoping that an advanced degree will bring greater opportunity.

Few, if any, professors are interested in accepting as a new graduate student someone who was an ordinary undergraduate. This means that students who are hoping to go to graduate school need to do more than just take a full course load and get good grades. They need to stand apart from the crowd. There are a lot of ways to accomplish this. For example, one could volunteer to be a professor’s research assistant, or regularly attend symposia or workshops in the field of interest. If a student’s current school has a work-study or co-op program, that might be a good way to get valuable work experience and begin establishing a network within the field.

There are other ways to stand out from the crowd, but that is the topic of another column, so I won’t get into all the options, here. I think you get the point: Most undergraduate college and university students are not exceeding minimum expectations. Even the majority of those who think they will succeed simply by getting excellent grades are not really doing anything special. This is one reason why only a small fraction of college students end up in graduate school. Few are exceptional enough in terms of work-ethic and readiness to make personal sacrifices.


What if the Guru is Wrong About That? Grades and their influence on grad school admission decisions

A short article was recently posted on the MyGraduateSchool website, written by Dr. Laura Buffardia graduate admissions consultant for the popular magazine Psychology Today. I do not know her personally, but a cursory search on her background reveals that Dr. Buffardi received her Ph.D. in 2010, and now she has a postdoctoral research position, and a cool gig with Psychology Today. I wouldn’t be surprised if she has other impressive accomplishments and ongoing projects. She certainly offers valuable advice to students who are thinking of graduate school in Psychology. In fact, most of her advice and insight also applies to the graduate-school application and admissions process in other disciplines within the social sciences and natural sciences. If you are thinking about graduate school, you should check out the resources she has to offer, even if you are not in Psychology.

Despite my sincere advocation, I will use the rest of my commentary to refute a statement Dr. Buffardi makes in the MyGraduateSchool article. She writes:

             “GPA is consistently the most critical factor in admissions decisions.”

Like many other well-meaning consultants and advisors, Dr. Buffardi may in fact be perpetuating a popular misconception about the factors that determine acceptance or rejection by graduate programs in Psychology. Most people think the selection process should work in a way that emphasizes past academic performance, but the truth is, most Psychology graduate programs make selections in a way that bears little resemblance to common assumptions. You really have to be an insider to appreciate the way it works. Getting into graduate school and making it through does not make someone an insider to the graduate admissions process (unless they have become professors and supervise their own graduate students). It may make them insiders to what it’s like to be a graduate student or former graduate student, but as I have described in a previous post, grad students are not always a reliable source of good advice about what it takes to get into graduate school.

In a recent video-interview, which you can view on her Psychology Today site, Dr. Buffardi correctly asserts that there is a positive correlation between academic performance in undergraduate school and subsequent performance in graduate school. The best predictor of your performance in grad school is your performance as an undergraduate, and committee’s know this” It is true, in general — students who achieve higher undergraduate grades also achieve higher measures of performance in graduate school. Although this relationship exists and the people on an admissions committee probably know about it, however, this does not mean that an applicant with a 3.80 GPA has a better chance of getting into a particular Psychology graduate program than another applicant who has a GPA of only 3.50.  It sounds contradictory, but it really isn’t. It all has to do with the way most graduate programs in Psychology (within the U.S. and Canada) make their selections.

Grades are not tokens that can later be cashed in for something

Before I go on to describe my insider’s view of the graduate admissions process, I want to point out that the positive relationship between undergraduate and graduate-school performance is demonstrated by a post hoc analysis of what are, essentially, historical academic records. It is only a correlation, and it does not mean that getting higher grades will make an individual more likely to get into graduate school and succeed once there. It is necessary to have good grades if you want to get into graduate school; without them you have little chance of success. Importantly, what I really mean by good grades is good-enough — and for grades to be good-enough, they do not have to be as high as most students assume. If your grades are good enough to get into graduate school, you probably won’t significantly improve your chances of being accepted any further just by getting even higher grades. [There is one important exception to this, but it would be too much of a sidetrack to completely explain that here. Instead, I will cover it in my next post].

As long as you are achieving grades of B, B+, along with some A- and As, your grades are good enough for most graduate programs. It is wiser to focus ones preparation for graduate school on other things, where it can make a bigger difference, instead of just doing whatever it takes to get an A or A- in every class. The prevailing notion seems to be that if you get enough of the really valuable tokens (grades in the A range), you get to cash out at the end of undergraduate school and receive some type of more tangible reward in exchange; like an acceptance letter from a graduate school. It just does not work that way.

I have already written about how the graduate admissions process tends to work in Psychology graduate programs and, in fact, it is not much different from most other Master’s and Ph.D. programs within the social sciences and natural sciences. I won’t bother to repeat all the important aspects of graduate admissions here, but I’ll just make the key point that decisions about individual applicants are ultimately made by a particular faculty member who the applicant has indicated he or she would prefer to have for a graduate supervisor. To put it in even more simple terms: Psychology professors choose their own graduate students, and they usually only consider applicants who have already chosen them. In most Psychology graduate programs, admissions decisions are not made by a committee. This is true both for master’s and for Ph.D. programs in Psychology. (Psy.D. programs, and master’s programs in allied fields, such as Counseling, Social Work, and Educational Psychology, are more likely to make admissions decisions as a committee).

It’s all about the research

It is important to understand the motives psychology professors have for accepting new graduate students. Every professor is an individual, and each will therefore have his or her own set of personal criteria and methods for reaching decisions about whether or not to accept a new grad student. But despite the individual variations, there is a certain common interest shared by most university psychology professors, which is also the most important motive most of them have for taking on a new grad student. A vast majority of university psychology professors do research, and they supervise graduate students because doing so is necessary in order to accomplish their research goals. In simple terms: Most psychology professors accept a new grad student only if the following four conditions are met:

1) the professor currently has a need for additional research trainees in order to carry out the research agenda over the next few years.

2) there is evidence that this particular student will be a better researcher than the others who have also applied to work with this professor.

3) there are no reasons to suspect that the student will have any significant problems with the academic or clinical-training aspects of the program.

4) there are no reasons to suspect that the student has any kind of personality or character flaw, or interpersonal inadequacies, that could make it unpleasant to work with them for a few years, or that would spoil the environment for the other students who are part of the professor’s research team.

What do the insiders think about GPA and GRE scores?

Most university professors who have been involved in selecting and supervising graduate students will tell you that they don’t usually care much whether a particular applicant has a GPA in the B+ range (say, in the low 3s on the common GPA scale that goes from 0.00 to 4.00, or they have a GPA that is more like A- (mid 3s), or even close to A (upper 3s – 4.00). (By the way, not all universities use this grading scale, and there are a surprising number of different scales in use, but this is the most common one and I think most readers of this blog are at least vaguely familiar with it).

The reason why most psychology professors do not care about the particular GPAs of their potential graduate students is because it is not relevant to the primary motivation for supervising graduate students. Grades are not usually a major consideration in admissions decisions because grades have little to do with the applicant’s potential as a researcher, and they usually have almost no relevance to determining whether or not the student will be a pleasant person to supervise. As I mentioned above, the most important thing for a professor is that their graduate students contribute to the operation and development of the professor’s research program, and the second most important thing is that the student is not a pain-in-the-ass to supervise.

Dr. Buffardi claims that an applicant’s GPA and GRE scores are the most influential factor in determining whether they are accepted or rejected, followed by letters of recommendation, the personal statement, and past experience. She has it backwards. The letters, personal statement, and previous research experience are much more influential in the eyes of most professors, especially those who have more than a few years experience at selecting and supervising graduate students. GPA and GRE scores receive significantly less consideration — as long as they are good enough.

[ Read a letter from a psychology student who graduated with a B+ average and was accepted into a master’s program at Cambridge University, as well as at one of the most prestigious professional psychology graduate programs in the U.S. ]

GRE scores are becoming less and less important in recent years. As part of a trend that began more than a decade ago, many graduate schools no longer require applicants to submit GRE scores. This trend seems to be more prevalent in Canada, but it is also happening in the U.S.  This trend toward a diminishing role for standardized exam scores is exemplified by the Psychology graduate programs at my university — Concordia University.

About 12 years ago, we decided that we would no longer require applicants to submit GRE scores. By “we”, I mean the all the fulltime faculty members in our department who supervise graduate students voted on whether we should drop the requirement or retain it (basically, all 40+ of us supervise graduate students). Most applicants to our graduate programs still submit GRE scores, and there is no problem with that, but none of them have to submit GRE scores. Why did we get rid of the requirement? The same reason that dozens of other Psychology graduate programs have made the same move: Because a huge majority of the faculty members in our department do not believe GRE scores are useful when it comes to discriminating between applicants who are likely to be good graduate students and those with less promise. I can’t remember if it was just a huge majority of us, or whether the vote against the GRE requirement was unanimous. One thing I can say for sure, though, is that no one made an argument in favor of keeping the requirement.

Let’s put this in perspective to show that it wasn’t just a strange decision by a small group of idiosyncratic psychologists at some small university. Concordia University has a large Psychology department, with over 40 tenured professors along with a few more-junior faculty members who are on the track to a tenured position. We offer four different graduate programs — master’s and Ph.D. programs in both clinical psychology and nonclinical (ie., experimental and research) psychology. Our programs are CPA and APA accredited, so there is nothing unusual about how we do things in our graduate programs. I would wager that in the Psychology departments that still require applicants to submit GRE scores, a large proportion of the faculty members don’t really use GRE scores to decide whether or not to accept a particular applicant.

Importantly, I still advise all students who are planning to apply to graduate school in Psychology to write the GRE General exam, even if they happen to know the graduate program that interests them the most does not require GRE scores. This is simply because, if a student is doing things right, he or she will probably be applying to more than one program, and it is likely that at least one of those programs, if not most, will still require GRE scores. It is fallacy, however, to assume that if they want to see your GRE scores, then those scores must play an important role in the decision-making process. I admit that I sometimes check to see how an applicant did on the GRE, but only because I’m curious to see how their scores compare to my GRE scores from 25 years ago!

Do the foregoing points mean that all psychology professors will give only secondary consideration to a grad-school applicant’s GPA or GRE scores? No, it doesn’t mean that. It just reflects how the majority of psychology professors view GPAs and GRE scores. There is still much variation among individual professors, and it is still possible to find veteran professors who look to GPA and GRE scores when they make decisions about who to take on as a graduate student. The fact that there are still professors out there who care a lot about grades when they are choosing grad student does not change the fact that most do not. The lack of uniformity isn’t really surprising, when you consider that we are all allowed to make our own decisions concerning grad school applicants. New faculty members are not told how to select grad students; so understandably, we all start off doing it in a way that makes sense to us. Over time and with experience, many professors change their tactics as they discover that the criteria they used during those first few years were not reliable way to distinguish really good graduate students from average ones. Remember, most psychology professors judge how “good” a graduate student is by their research abilities and accomplishments, work ethic, and interpersonal and communication skills.

In might come as a surprise, but most psychology professors won’t pay much attention to how their grad students do in the few classes they take. Did the Ph.D. student get a B or an A in this or that graduate seminar? It really only matters to the student. By the way, one does not have to be in graduate school for long to realize that most classes are graded as simply PASS versus FAIL, and that it is rare for a graduate student to FAIL a class. Some graduate classes might involve a letter-grade evaluation (the student receives an A, A-, B+, etc), but it makes no difference to the main concerns of most professors if their grad students get Bs or As. Typically, a professor supervises graduate students because these students are essential to accomplishing the professor’s research mission. There is nothing in it for the graduate supervisor if the graduate student gets an A in some seminar, and there is also no cost to the supervisor if the student’s grade is B-.

By the way, Dr. Buffardi’s Psychology Today webpage includes an informative interview with a Psychology professor who has a lot of experience with the graduate admissions process. If you pay close attention to what this insider says, you will notice that he confirms several of the key points I have just made, including:

1) Grades and GRE scores do not trump other factors like letters of recommendation, personal statements, or the degree of ‘match’ between the student and the program. Although he states near the end of the interview, “…good grades and strong GRE scores will earn you serious consideration,” this is not the same as saying they begin with the grades and then move on to other considerations. I suspect he may also agree, if asked about it, that nearly all applicants have good grades, and most of them have strong GRE scores. Importantly, he doesn’t say anywhere that higher grades and stronger GRE scores are more likely to result in acceptance.

2) Individual faculty members make their own decisions about which applicants to accept, place on a wait-list, or reject. Only the individual faculty member knows how he or she weighs the different elements of a complete application.

3) Most individual faculty members base their decisions on their general and overall impression they have of an applicant.

There is no standard protocol according to which all graduate admissions committees operate, but the Psychology Today interview with the graduate-admissions insider gives a good picture of one common variant of the general process in Psychology departments. Note his comment about how, in years long past, he would meet with his colleagues and they would discuss individual applicants as a committee, but nowadays the decisions are left up to individual faculty members. It is not stated explicitly in the interview, but it is implied, that individual faculty members decide whom to accept and supervise based on the match between the research interests of the applicant and the faculty member’s particular area(s) of specialization… if there are no deficiencies in the applicant’s overall profile.

There are many more key aspects of the graduate admissions process that go unmentioned in the interview, but that is understandable considering there are obvious limits to how long an interview can be. As another true insider to graduate admissions in Psychology, I try to fill in those gaps with this blog, in my book, and through the seminars I conduct with undergraduate students.

Guest Blog: The benefits of attending a smaller University or College

I teach at one of the smallest universities in Canada (and certainly at the smallest one in my province).  We have about 1200 full time students in our whole school.  A big department like mine, has five faculty members.   (To put that in some perspective, the lab I was in while doing my PhD had five members).   I know my students are getting a good education, I have evidence of that.  Heck, we even recently hired one of our former students (once she went off and got a PhD) in our department.  Each year we send off a few students to grad school in psychology, but also to law school, med school etc.

Why do I mention these things?  Well, there is a perception out there that one is somehow at a disadvantage if one’s degree is from a small school when applying for graduate work.   I can tell you that, in my experience, this is completely and utterly untrue.

What do graduate admissions committees care about?  They care about grades, GRE scores, experience, cover letters (or personal statements) and letters of recommendation.   The letters of recommendation are key.  (I have been on graduate admissions committees before, and at a big university).  You will get a much more insightful letter if the prof knows you.  He or she will know you pretty darned well if you have taken 5 classes over your undergrad career with him or her.  What do they want to see in these letters?  Well it varies, but most of us would like to see words like ‘maturity’ and ‘independence’ and such.  Well, at a small school someone will easily see those things in you.

Once you get to a grad program, your work at a smaller university will stand you in good stead.  You see, graduate seminars and classes tend to be small, but you have been in small classes since day one of your undergrad career.  The idea of speaking your mind is a lot easier if you have been doing it already for a few years.

I have heard many students of mine say that they are concerned when they apply to grad school that ‘nobody will have ever heard of our school’ or ‘they think we are some small time place’.   I did my PhD at one of the most prestigious universities in the world, but, when I look at the faculty, and where they did their undergrad degrees, I can see that many went to small schools ‘nobody has ever heard of’.

In our fourth year capstone seminar course on the last day I tell my students this:

‘If anyone ever tells you that your education here was second rate, or that your degree is somehow worth less than theirs, feel free to tell them to go to hell, and tell them that was from me.’

Dr. Dave Brodbeck is an experimental psychologist at Algoma University in Sault Ste. Marie ON, Canada where he teaches and studies the evolution of cognition.  Dave can be found talking science, video games, sports, politics etc at or on twitter @dbrodbeck.  All of his lectures are podcasted and available on iTunes


Choosing a Graduate School? You Need to Know About Accreditation

Note: Today’s post is a lightly-edited excerpt from Graduate School: Winning Strategies for Getting In (2 ed.)

In the most general sense, to say that a university or graduate program is accredited means that it has been recognized by some official authority as providing the highest level of advanced training. The official body gives accreditation when the institution or graduate program meets certain standards. Accreditation is based on several factors, including: the overall mission and the specific aims and objectives of the program or school, the admission requirements, the curriculum and the quality of training, the qualifications and reputation of the faculty members, and the services available to students.

If a university has not received accreditation, that means its Master’s or Ph.D. degrees will not be widely recognized as indicating that one has received the highest level of training or acquired knowledge in his or her field. Schools that do not meet the standards set out by the accrediting authority are referred to as non-accredited, and if you are serious about using your graduate degree as a qualification for some type of successful career, you should avoid non-accredited programs and schools.

Many business organizations provide vocational or academic training in some field, and attempt to lure students by referring to themselves as colleges or universities, and by offering diplomas, undergraduate degrees, graduate degrees, or professional degrees. Many such programs are not accredited, so one must be careful to check the credentials of any school or graduate program before giving it serious consideration.

Accreditation in the United States

Accreditation of universities and graduate schools occurs at the regional and national levels. Both forms are similar, inasmuch as they are both conducted by non-profit organizations, and both are institution-wide in scope. In some disciplines, there is a special form of accreditation for graduate programs that offer a Master’s or Ph.D. degree within the particular discipline.

The commissions that determine regional accreditation typically consist of faculty members and administrators from the affiliated institutions, as well as one or more public member. There are six regional accreditation agencies for colleges and universities in the United States. You can check the directories of accredited institutions on the following websites:

New England Association of Schools and Colleges

Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools

Higher Learning Commission

Northwest Commission of Schools and Colleges

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools

The U.S. Department of Education also has a national database of accredited postsecondary institutions and programs:

In addition to regional accreditation, there are also national accrediting bodies for schools and graduate programs in certain disciplines:

The American Psychological Association accredits education and training programs in professional psychology within the U.S. and Canada. They cover doctoral programs, internships, and postdoctoral residency programs; they do not accredit bachelors or master’s programs.

The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education conducts accreditation of undergraduate and graduate programs in education.

The Association of Theological Schools accredits professional and academic graduate programs in the theological disciplines. They cover schools within the U.S. and Canada.

The Distance Education and Training Council accredits online graduate programs.

The American Bar Association accredits law schools.

Accreditation in Canada

The accreditation of schools and graduate programs in Canada works pretty much the same as in the U.S.  The provinces and territories are responsible for all levels of education, and each has a charter that covers the requirements for a university, but there is no formal system of accreditation. Below are links to bodies that accredit professional programs at Canadian universities.

The following are some of the discipline-specific accrediting agencies in Canada:

The Canadian Psychological Association accredits graduate programs in professional psychology.

The Canadian Association of Social Worker Education conducts accreditation of schools of social work.

The Canadian Counseling and Psychotherapy Association accredits programs in counseling.

For speech-language pathology and audiology, there is the Council for Accreditation of Canadian University Programs in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology.

The Canadian Forestry Accreditation Board deals with the accreditation of graduate programs in forestry.

Finally, accreditation of law schools in Canada is done by the Federation of Law Societies of Canada.

You can also find a more complete list of  bodies that accredit professional programs at Canadian universities here.

Remember that accreditation is a voluntary process that is undertaking by the institution or specialized program in question and without it there is no guarantee that the institution or graduate program meets any kind of minimum standards. If you are planning on a licensed profession or require professional certification, then you should avoid all non-accredited programs, otherwise, you may find yourself with a degree that you worked hard for, but can’t use.